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24.10. (05:00)
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25.10.
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Personalities

East Bohemia is the birthplace of famous personalities, who left behind significant footprints in the history of the Czech people with their ways. Among the most famous natives is unarguably the renowned duo of musical composers Bedřich Smetana, who was born in Litomyšl, and Bohuslav Martinů from Poličky.

František Schmoranz

František Schmoranz

* 11/20/1845 Slatiňany - † 1/12/1892 Praha

Architect and first director of the Applied Arts School in Prague (from 1885). In 1869-1874 he conducted building and documentation work in Egypt. His interests in oriental art and architecture is dramatically present in his works as well - he projected the Egyptian-Sudanese department at the Expo in Vienna (1873), the spa building in Trenčianský Teplice and the Hammam Turkish spa building.

Jan Hus

Jan Hus

* 1370 Husinec - † 7/7/1415 Kostnice

Czech medieval religious thinker, preacher and Roman Catholic priest. One of the first church reformers, who was inspired by John Wycliff. The Catholic church called him a heretic, he was convicted by the Council of Constance and burnt at the stake.

Jára Cimrman

Jára Cimrman

According to some scholars, a long forgotten and then rediscovered Czech genius from the turn of the 20th century. He excelled in many fields. He was a great playwright, philosopher, amateur gynaecologist, skier, close friend and teacher of Albert Einstein, inventor, daltonist and close friend of T.A. Edison. According to other people, he never actually existed and was the invention of the theatre bearing his name.

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler

* 4/21/1889 Braunau am Inn - † 5/1/1945 Berlín

The leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party, German Chancellor, head of the German state. He established a militaristic totalitarian state, he was responsible for the genocide of certain groups of inhabitants - Jews, the disabled and others. In 1939, by attacking Poland he evoked World War II, in which Germany suffered a devastating defeat.

Oskar Schindler

Oskar Schindler

* 4/29/1908 Svitavy - † 10/10/1974 Hildesheim

German entrepreneur, Svitava native, saviour of 1200 Jews from concentration camps. He became the subject of numerous controversies some of which glorify him, others depreciate his actions or even deny them. His story was the subject for Thomas Keneally's novel Schindler's Ark according to which the the film Schindler's List (1993) was filmed by Steven Spielberg.

Taťána Kuchařová

Taťána Kuchařová

* 12/24/1987 Trnava

One of the most successful Czech models from the east Bohemian town of Opoćno. She won the Miss Czech Republic title in 2006, Miss Sympathy of the Czech Republic 2006 and above all the Miss World 2006 title (on 30 September 2006 she beat 103 competitors from around the world in the finals).

Bedřich Smetana

Bedřich Smetana

* 3/3/1824 Litomyšl - † 5/13/1884 Praha

He began to perform at the age of six and amazed listeners with his piano skills; he also began to compose music. He acquired a secondary education in Jihlava, Německý Brod, Prague, and Plzeň. In Prague he served as a teacher for the family of Count Thun. In 1848 Smetana opened his own music school in Prague. He participated in the revolution as a member of the National Guard; in 1865 he decided to leave to Gothenburg for existential reasons and worked as a teacher, conductor, and piano virtuoso. He had a difficult time upon his return to his homeland; he headed the Hlahol Choir, organized and conducted concerts of the Arts Forum, became a reporter for the National Press, performed as a pianist and began to teach again. In 1866, following the success of his operas Brandenburgers in Bohemia and the Bartered Bride, he became the conductor of the Interim Theatre. In 1874 he suffered a serious neurological disorder which caused him to go deaf; he subsequently moved to Jabkenice to be with his daughter. After a short stay in an insane asylum he died in Prague on 12.5.1884 at the age of 60. Smetana is buried in the Vyšehrad Cemetery.

Bohuslav Martinů

Bohuslav Martinů

* 8/9/1890 Polička - † 8/29/1959 Liestal

Born 8.8.1890 in Polička as the son of cobbler and bank assistant Ferdinand Martinů. He studied the violin for about 6 years, and when he was 15 began to perform as a soloist at local functions. Thanks to his teacher Adolf Vaníček, Martinů entered the Prague Conservatory on 15.9.1906, and from that time on he continued to compose music.However, negligence led to his expulsion from the school. He remained in Prague and diligently studied musical scores, but nevertheless failed his state violin test in November 1911. He finally passed the test a year later. Influenced by Dvořák, Strauss, and Debussy he wrote over 90 pieces by 1912. In 1914 Martinů was named second violinist for the Czech Philharmonic Orchestra. He spent the First World War in his hometown working as a violin teacher; in 1919 he returned to Prague. Later he became a guest instructor in the master school of Josef Suk. In 1923 he was awarded a three-month internship in Paris; when it was finished he remained in France and wrote over 140 pieces. He avoided the Nazis by first fleeing to southern France, and later to New York. After 1953 he lived mainly in Europe. His remains were laid to rest in the cemetery in Polička.

Alfons Mucha

Alfons Mucha

* 7/25/1860 Ivančice - † 7/15/1939 Praha

Czech art nouveau artist. Born in Ivančice, studied at the Slovanic grammar school in Brno. In 1879 he went to Vienna to work as a theatre scenery painter. In 1883 he was invited by Count Khuen Belassim to create the décor of chateau Emmahof in Vienna. The breaking point in his career was in 1897 when he received an order for a poster for Sarah Bernhardt. Mucha’s most famous period was at the turn of the 20th century. In the U.S.A. he was welcomed as one of the greatest decorative artists in the world, however he returned to the Bohemia.

Antonín Chittussi

Antonín Chittussi

* 12/2/1847 Ronov nad Doubravou - † 5/2/1891 Praha

He studied at the Prague Academy and later in Munich and Vienna. He returned to the Prague Academy in 1874, only to be expelled two years later. Chittussi debuted in Prague in 1876 and 1877 at exhibitions of Krasoumná jednota and the Art Forum. In 1878 he enlisted as a soldier to Bosnia, and a year later departed to study in Paris, where he also exhibited. His first collected exhibition was held in Prague in 1885. Chittussi struggled for years to find his artistic direction. He did not apply his talent in figural composition or the genres taught at the Academy. After his forced departure from the Academy he developed an interest in landscape painting, but his first truly accomplished work, "From Trojský Island" was painted in 1878. He gradually became a master of plein air landscapes and a sensitive painter of natural ambience. He entered the subconscious of the young generation with his simple motifs and feeling for the Czech landscape. Chittussi's work didn't gain recognition until after his death.

František Kupka

František Kupka

* 9/24/1871 Opočno - † 6/25/1957 Puteaux

Renowned 20th century artist, one of the founders of modern abstract art. He spent his childhood in Dobruška (1872-1889), where he also trained as a saddler and strap maker. He studied art in Jaroměř, later on in Prague, Vienna and Paris. He also lived in Paris at intervals from 1895 until his death.

Max Švabinský

Max Švabinský

* 9/18/1873 Kroměříž - † 2/11/1962 Praha

He was one of the most important Czech artists of the twentieth century, admired for his remarkable drawing skill and the diversity of his graphic techniques. He was responsible to a great extent for bringing the Czech creative arts to the attention of Europe. Beginning at the end of the 1890's Švabinský and his wife Ela often spent time with the Vejrych family in Kozlov near Česká Třebová. In 1910 Švabinský was appointed as professor of the Prague Academy. In 1917 he expanded his artistic expressions to include woodcuts in Elysian Sonatas. He is also the author of a mosaic for the National Monument on the Žižkov hilltop, made drawings for three stained-glass windows at St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague, and created miniature graphic works for postage stamps. Max Švabinský worked nearly up to his death on February 10, 1962 in Prague.

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler

* 4/21/1889 Braunau am Inn - † 5/1/1945 Berlín

The leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party, German Chancellor, head of the German state. He established a militaristic totalitarian state, he was responsible for the genocide of certain groups of inhabitants - Jews, the disabled and others. In 1939, by attacking Poland he evoked World War II, in which Germany suffered a devastating defeat.

Edvard Beneš

Edvard Beneš

* 5/29/1884 Kožlany - † 9/4/1948 Sezimovo Ústí

The second president of the independent state of Czechoslovakia. After the start of World War I Beneš engaged in anti-Austrian resistance and helped organise rebellions. From the beginning of the twenties he was a significant and respected politician in Europe. After the abdication, T.G. Masaryk was elected president on 18.12.1935. After concluding the Munich Agreement he went to exile. Following the ensuing presidential vote (1946) he once again became president.

Eliška Rejčka

Eliška Rejčka

* 9/2/1286 Poznaň - † 10/19/1335 Staré Brno

Czech queen, widow of Czech kings. She was originally promised to the son of Branibor Margrave Oto Braniborský, but instead in 1300 married Czech King Václav II, whose wife had died. In 1303 she arrived in Prague and was crowned Czech and Polish queen. On this occasion she took the name Elizabeth or also Eliška; Rejčka is a corruption of her original name. Rudolf Hapsburg, who took the unoccupied Czech thrown in 1306, chose her as his second wife.

František Antonín Špork

František Antonín Špork

* 3/10/1662 Lysá nad Labem - † 3/31/1738 Lysá nad Labem

One of the most important nobles of the Czech Baroque and a great patron of the arts. He established a grand spa in Kuks with a Brothers of Mercy hospital and the Špork family tomb. He entrusted spa ornamentation to the greatest sculptor of the period, Mathias Bernard Braun, who also created the nearby nativity scene. Špork built the first public theatre in Prague at his palace and introduced the country to Italian opera. He passionately supported and reformed hunting and founded the hunting Order of St. Hubert. In addition to Braun his artistic entourage included painter Petr Brandl and engraver Michael Rentz.

František Josef I.

František Josef I.

* 8/19/1830 Vídeň - † 11/22/1916 Vídeň

Emperor of Austria, Bohemia and Hungary for 68 years. He took over the reign very early on, thus he received more extensive education. He most likely lived to the highest age from all of the Habsburg rulers and thus ranked among the longest ruling sovereigns in the world. He passed away in the middle of World War I, he is buried in the Capuchin crypt in Vienna

Jan Adam Ondřej z Lichtenštejna

Jan Adam Ondřej z Lichtenštejna

* 12/1/1657 Brno - † 6/11/1712 Vídeň

The third Lichtenstein prince was a very good economist and financier, a great fan and supporter of art, especially painting and architecture. In 1694 he received the Merit Order of the Knights of the Golden Fleece. In 1699 he acquired the Schellenberg estate and in 1212 the County of Vaduz. Later on, this territory formed a part of the present day Principality of Lichtenstein. He was one of the most generous patrons of his time.

Jiří z Poděbrad

Jiří z Poděbrad

* 4/24/1420 Poděbrady - † 3/23/1471 Praha

The only Czech monarch who did not come from a monarchical dynasty. He avoided non-radical Calixtines. In 1452 he conquered Tabor, thereby liquidating the Taborites as a political and religious group. In the very same year he became the administrator of the Czech kingdom during the reign of minor Ladislav Pohrobka.

Karel IV.

Karel IV.

* 5/15/1316 Praha - † 11/30/1378 Praha

The most significant European monarch of late medieval times, Roman emperor and Czech king, he was nicknamed the “Father of the Homeland.” During his reign the Czech monarchy became the centre of Europe, Prague was the royal seat of the city of the Holy Roman Empire. The country underwent incredible economic, artistic and cultural development. He brought Czech monarchy to its climax. Charles IV is buried in the sarchophagus in the middle of the royal crypt in St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague Castle.

Karel Jan Schwarzenberg

Karel Jan Schwarzenberg

* 12/11/1937 Praha

He comes from the Orlicky branch of the Schwarzenberg family. He was the Head of the President of ČSFR's Office, the president's chancellor, the chairman of the International Helsinki Federation for human rights. He is the current senator and minister of foreign affairs, co-owner of the company Jan Becher - Carlsbad becherovka, the owner of 300 ha of ponds in the CR and Chateau Orlik.

Karel sr. of Žerotín

Karel sr. of Žerotín

* 9/16/1564 Brandýs nad Orlicí - † 10/10/1636 Přerov

One of the most significant figures in the Pre-White Mountain period, nobleman, politician and writer. In 1595 he led the Moravian movement in battle against the Turks. From 1608 he was the Moravian district marshal. He took part in establishing the Austro-Hungarian-Moravian confederation in support of Matyáš, who was in conflict with Rudolph II.

Karel VI.

Karel VI.

* 10/2/1685 Vídeň - † 10/21/1740 Vídeň

The youngest son of Leopold I and Eleonor Falcko-Neubursky. After the death of his brother Joseph I he became Emperor. He was a bigot catholic. The rituals of the Spanish court suited his needs. He married in 1708 to the German princess Elizabeth Christine of Brunswick – Wolfenbuttel.

Přemysl Otakar II

Přemysl Otakar II

* 1233 Městec Králové - † 1278 Suché Kruty

Přemysl Otakar II, known as the iron and golden king, born around 1233 as the second son of King Václav I and Kunhuta Štaufská, was the fifth Czech king from the Přemyslid family (crowned in 1261) and a powerful Central European sovereign who temporarily connected Austrian lands to Bohemia after the Babenburg family died out. However, these lands were not held long against the advancing Hapsburgs, and Přemysl Otakar II was killed during his retreat from the Battle of the Marchfeld, after having been defeated by Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph I.

Rudolf II.

Rudolf II.

* 7/19/1552 Vídeň - † 1/21/1612 Praha

The Roman Emperor, the Czech, Hungarian and Croatian King. He was the son of Emperor Maxmillian II and Mary of Spain. He became famous mainly for his passion for collecting, his philanthropic support of alchemists, charlatans, as well as real artists and scholars.

Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk

Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk

* 3/8/1850 Hodonín - † 9/15/1937 Lány

The first Czechoslovakian president, Czech philosopher, pedagogue, politician, scientist and journalist. He spent his youth in Čejkovice. He entered the political and social scene during the Austrian monarchy. During World War I he organised anti-Austrian resistance towards establishing an independent Republic of Czechoslovakia. He was the President of Czechoslovakia from 1918 and abdicated in 1935 due to old age.

Václav Havel

Václav Havel

* 10/6/1936 Praha - † 12/19/2011 Vlčice-Hrádeček

Playwright, Charter 77 signatory, self-professed fighter for democracy and human rights. Was President of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the Czechoslovak Federative Republic and later the independent Czech Republic. Honorary member of many domestic and foreign societies, the holder of many honorary degrees from dozens of universities throughout the world. Nominated for the Nobel Prize. Author of a number of plays and books.

Jan Marek Marci

Jan Marek Marci

* 6/14/1595 Lanškroun - † 4/11/1667 Praha

Marci was born 13.6.1595 in Lanškroun as the son of the caretaker the Litomyšl domain estates. He became a scientist of European fame at a young age. Involved in the refraction of light before I. Newton, Marci is regarded as the founder of spectroscopy. He used a pendulum to measure time. When Charles University was handed over to the Jesuits on 14.11.1622 (they re-opened four faculties, including law and medicine), Prague doctors were immediately named professors; among the first was Marci. In addition to teaching and conducting his own work, he dedicated himself to astronomy at night. In 1626 Marci was named the Czech royal physicist. Nine years later he organized the defence of the Old Town against the Swedes and led the medical services during the battle on Charles Bridge, for which he was named a royal advisor. In 1654 Marci was bestowed the rank of palsgrave and was elevated to the status of lower Czech nobility. Four years later he became the personal physician of Emperor Ferdinand III, and in 1662 he was appointed as the chancellor of the university. At this time he allegedly turned down an offer to become an Oxford University professor.

Josef Ressel

Josef Ressel

* 6/30/1793 Chrudim - † 10/11/1857 Lublaň

Ressel was born on 29 June 1793 in Chrudim to a mixed marriage – his father was German and his mother was Czech. He studied high school in Linz and later also studied at artillery school. In 1812 he was accepted to Vienna University. He studied medicine, mechanical engineering, physics, and chemistry. In 1814 at the time of the Napoleon wars he returned home at the wishes of his parents. Ressel became a forester in Trieste in 1820. He had always been attracted to boats, and therefore began to think about ways to give a boat strength and speed. He was inspired by the ship Carolina, a paddle steamboat. Then he got the idea of adding a screw to the steam mechanism and after many trials he was able to put his idea into practice. In Trieste he was laughed at; nevertheless, on 28.11.1826 Ressel applied for an Austrian patent. In September 1828 he signed a contract with the wealthy businessman Fontana to begin voyages between Monfalcone and Istria. A year later the ship was to be launched in the water, but at the last moment Ressel relocated the screw to the rear of the boat; the ship did not set off. The Austrians did not supply the steam device. What’s more, several swindlers tried to steal the invention. The ship with the screw actually did set sail in the end. But a pipe on the steam device cracked and the voyages were ended. Ressel finally received recognition many years later.

Jaroslav Kulhavý

Jaroslav Kulhavý

* 1/9/1985 Ústí nad Orlicí

An Olympian representing the Czech Republic in cycling. He is the junior champion of Europe and the world in 2003 and the bronze medalist of the World Championships in 2007 in the category of 23 years old and under. In 2010 and 2011 he won the European Championships gold medal. In 2011, he not only became the overall winner of the World Cup, but he also won the title of world champion. The sporting highlight of Usti's native is the Olympic gold medal in London 2012 for MTB - cross country.

Lukáš Novák

Lukáš Novák

* 7/23/1983 Ústí nad Orlicí

The absolute leader in fire sport, multiple European champion and world champion. Invincible in the toughest firefighting races of TFA - the toughest firefighter survives.

Roman Šebrle

Roman Šebrle

* 11/27/1974 Lanškroun

Czech multidiscipline athlete and Olympic champion from 2004. He was the first to reach 9000 points in decathlon. With 9026 points he created a world record in Gotzis on the 26th and 27th of May 2001, which was not overcome for 11 years.

Jan Amos Comenius

Jan Amos Comenius

* 3/29/1592 Nivnice - † 11/16/1670 Amsterdam

He spent his childhood in Uherský Brod. He attended the Moravian Church school in Přerov in 1608 – 1611, and later studied in Herborn and Heidelberg. In 1616 he was ordained as a minister and two years later he became pastor of the Moravian Church congregation in Fulnek. After White Mountain he was forced into hiding and most often stayed at the castle of Charles the Elder of Žerotín in Brandýs. His wife and two of his children died, and during this difficult period he wrote Labyrinth of the World and Paradise of the Heart, which is probably his best-known work. In 1628 he left his native country for good and went to Lesna, Poland, where he lived and worked until 1656. A fire in the town cost Comenius his entire library and most of his manuscripts; he left home once again and made his way to Amsterdam. His time there was the peak of his scientific and literary activities; Comenius published approximately 62 books while living in Amsterdam. His inclinations toward irrationalism and faith in prophecy and visions also became stronger. At this time he also composed several religious tracts, polemics, and even political treatises. Not all of these met with understanding.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

* 8/29/1749 Frankfurt nad Mohanem - † 3/23/1832 Výmar

German poet, prosaic, dramatist. He had a relatively strong relationship to Bohemia and Mariánský Spa, where he met the love of his life Ulrika von Levetzow of Třebívlice in Litoměřice. From 1775 he lived inVýmar where he is buried. At that time, Friedrich Schiller also moved there in order to be closer to him.

Karel Čapek

Karel Čapek

* 1/10/1890 Malé Svatoňovice - † 12/26/1938 Praha

Czech prosaic, dramatist, journalist and translator of the first half of the 20th century. For a certain period he was the representative of the Czechoslovakian Penclub. During the time of of the threat of Nazi occupation he was one of the main motors of resistance. He began creating literature before World War I, at first with his brother Josef, who was primarily a painter.

Karel sr. of Žerotín

Karel sr. of Žerotín

* 9/16/1564 Brandýs nad Orlicí - † 10/10/1636 Přerov

One of the most significant figures in the Pre-White Mountain period, nobleman, politician and writer. In 1595 he led the Moravian movement in battle against the Turks. From 1608 he was the Moravian district marshal. He took part in establishing the Austro-Hungarian-Moravian confederation in support of Matyáš, who was in conflict with Rudolph II.

Thomas Mann

Thomas Mann

* 6/7/1875 Lübeck - † 8/13/1955 Curych

Brother of the writer Heinrich Mann, German prosaic and essayist, Novel Prize winner for literature (1929). His debut was the novel Gefallen. His first great work, the novel Buddenbrook was published in 1901. The book reaped rave reviews and Thomas became a famous German writer almost overnight. In 1938 he went to the U.S.A. (he became a citizen in 1944). Following World War II he returned to Europe.

Václav Havel

Václav Havel

* 10/6/1936 Praha - † 12/19/2011 Vlčice-Hrádeček

Playwright, Charter 77 signatory, self-professed fighter for democracy and human rights. Was President of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the Czechoslovak Federative Republic and later the independent Czech Republic. Honorary member of many domestic and foreign societies, the holder of many honorary degrees from dozens of universities throughout the world. Nominated for the Nobel Prize. Author of a number of plays and books.

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